Ladies and gentlemen!
Hello everyone! My name is Yiming. I'm your guide. Today, I will take you
to visit the "three Confucius": Confucius' mansion, Confucius' temple and
Sage Confucius has a famous saying: "it's a pleasure to have friends from
afar." I'm very happy to be a tour guide. I will try my best to serve you.
Please criticize and correct the shortcomings.
Before visiting Sankong, please allow me to introduce Qufu. Qufu is located
at the junction of Luzhong district and southwest plain of Shandong Province. Li
Bai, a great poet, once described Qufu as "laughing and boasting of old friends,
pointing to a desperate situation, with mountains and waters as green as
orchids". Now let's visit the Confucius Temple. Confucius Temple is located in
the center of Qufu City. It is a charming building built by ancient people for
the great thought and broad spiritual quality of Confucius. It covers an area of
327.5 mu, with a length of 1 km from north to south. There are 466 buildings and
54 gateways. In addition, there are more than 1700 ancient trees in the temple,
one by one rushing into the sky. It is said that anyone who dares to cut down
one will be beheaded. Every tree, every door's name contains the thought of
The Confucius Mansion is adjacent to the Confucius Temple. It is the
residence of the eldest son of the sage Confucius. It has three roads and nine
courtyards. It has 463 buildings and a back garden, covering an area of 240 mu.
Confucius Mansion, also known as "Yansheng mansion". "Yan Sheng" means that
"Sheng Dao" and "Sheng Yi" can reproduce and continue,
After entering the gate of Confucius' mansion, there are three roads to the
back of Confucius' mansion. On the East Road, there are Yiguan hall, muen hall,
Confucius' family temple, etc.; on the West Road, there are red calyx hall,
Zhongshu hall, Anhuai hall, flower hall, etc.; on the Middle Road, there are the
main buildings of Confucius' mansion, the first half of which is the government
office, and the second half is the inner house.
Konglin is a special cemetery for the family of Confucius, the oldest and
largest family cemetery in the world. It covers an area of more than 3000 mu.
The surrounding walls are 3 meters high, 1.5 meters thick and 14.5 Li long.
There are more than 100000 trees and hundreds of plants in the forest. Among the
trees, there are many steles and statues, which are very spectacular.
Now free activity for 3 hours, you can visit the "three holes" by yourself,
you can also play games, picnics and other activities, but you must ensure
This is the end of the visit to "three holes".
How do you do!
Confucius said, "it's a pleasure to have friends coming from afar.". Today,
with this famous saying of Confucius, I welcome you to visit Qufu, Confucius'
hometown. I'm your local tour guide. I hope you can have a better understanding
of the three Confucius culture through my explanation. I hope you have a good
time here and have a good time. Before entering the scenic area, please allow me
to give you a brief introduction of Sankong scenic area and Qufu. Qufu is
located in the southwest of Shandong Province, with a population of 620000 and a
total area of 890 square kilometers. The word "Qufu" first appeared in Erya.
Ying Shao explained in the Eastern Han Dynasty that there was a Fu in the city
of Lu, and Weiqu was seven or eight Li long, so it was named "Qufu". The tour
guide service of the association, in 1012 ad, was once renamed "Xianyuan" county
to commemorate the birth of Xuanyuan Yellow Emperor, the ancestor of the Chinese
nation. In the seventh year of Emperor Taizong's Tianhui, it was also renamed
Qufu, and has been used since then.
Wanren palace wall: now our location is just outside the South Gate of the
ancient city of qufuming, which is called Wanren palace wall. There are four big
characters "Wanren palace wall" right above the gate. "Ren" is an ancient unit
of length, one Ren is about 8 feet, equivalent to 1.6 meters now. It is said
that some people praised Confucius' disciple Zigong for his knowledge. After
hearing that, Zigong said, "human knowledge is like a palace wall. My knowledge
is only as high as the top of the wall. But Confucius, my teacher, has several
walls. If you don't find its door, you can't see the beauty of the temple in the
wall.". In order to show his worship of Confucius, Emperor Qianlong of Qing
Dynasty ordered people to hang the four characters "Wanren palace wall" on the
1、 Confucius Temple
Overview of Confucius Temple: Confucius Temple is a temple dedicated to
Confucius, a thinker, statesman and educator in our country during the spring
and Autumn period,
Confucius Temple is the largest and oldest one. It has become one of the
three ancient buildings in China along with the Forbidden City and summer
resort. The temple is 1130 meters long, 168 meters wide from east to west,
covering an area of 150000 square meters. The whole complex is divided into nine
courtyards arranged symmetrically. There are five halls, one ancestral temple,
one Pavilion, one altar, two verandas, two halls, 17 stele pavilions, 53
gatehouses, a total of 466. The building area is about 16000 square meters.
Confucius Temple is known as "solitary example" in the history of world
architecture. It integrates history, architectural culture, art, calligraphy,
stone carvings and ancient tombs. It is the crystallization of the wisdom of
ancient laborers in our country. It is a precious historical and cultural
heritage. In 1961, it was announced as the first batch of cultural relics
protection units by the State Council. In 1994, it was listed as a world
cultural heritage by UNESCO. In 2007, it was listed as a national 5A tourist
"Jinshengyuzhen" Square: it is the first gate square of Confucius Temple.
It was built in the 17th year of Jiajing reign of Ming Dynasty. It is 5.6 meters
high and 13.5 meters long, with octagonal columns. On the top of the column,
there is a armored animal guarding against heaven and evil. On the lintel, the
inscription "Jin Sheng Yu Zhen" is written by Hu zuanzong, a great calligrapher
of the Ming Dynasty. The four words "Jin Sheng Yu Zhen" come from Mencius. Using
the meaning of Mencius, it expresses Confucius' consummate knowledge, just like
the whole process of playing music, which is complete from beginning to end.
Ancient music begins with the ringing of a bell and ends with the striking of a
chime. Praising Confucius for his learning is like the sound of gold and jade.
The sound of gold is the sound of a bell, indicating the beginning, and the
sound of jade is the sound of a chime, indicating the end. This is also the
source of the idiom "doing things from beginning to end". "Two cypresses bear
one hole": passing yuzhenfang, this single hole stone arch bridge is called
"Panshui bridge", which is connected with the water in the pan pool beside the
palace, so it is called "pan water". In the past, when I read the book of
Confucius and Mencius, I was admitted to higher education, which is called
"entering hope". Officials hope to be promoted, do business, hope to get rich,
and live a prosperous life. There is an ancient cypress on both sides of the
bridge, so it is called "two cypresses bear one hole". After the bridge, there
are two stone tablets on the East and West, which are engraved with "officials
and people waiting to dismount here", and called "dismounting stele". In the
past, civil and military officials and common people passed by, so they had to
dismount and get off the sedan chair to show their respect for Confucius.
"Lingxing gate": This gate is called "Lingxing gate". It was built in the Ming
Dynasty. "Lingxingmen" was inscribed by Qianlong. There are two or eight stars
in the sky, and the one in charge of culture is called "Lingxing", also known as
Wenqu star. Connecting Confucius with the star in charge of culture in the sky
is enough to prove that Confucius' culture stone is the highest. The ancients
worshipped the heaven, first of all, they worshipped Wenqu star. There is a
saying that respecting Confucius is like respecting heaven. You see, the square
is 10.34 meters high and 13 meters wide. The columns are cut up and down. The
intersection of the two sections is supported by a strong stone column. On the
head of the column are the portraits of the four heavenly kings, and in the
middle are the pearls of fire. It means that the door is protected by heaven.
This gate was rebuilt from wood to iron beams and stone columns.
Dazhongmen: dazhongmen is the main gate of the Confucius Temple in the Song
Dynasty. It was rebuilt in the Qing Dynasty. The three words "dazhongmen" were
inscribed by Emperor Qianlong. Its original name was gonghemen, and later it was
renamed dazhongmen. The large and medium-sized facade is extended to 5 rooms,
which is a single eaves building on the top of the mountain. On the one hand, we
can see the continuous expansion of Confucius Temple, on the other hand, we can
see the historical evolution of Confucius Temple.
Chenghua stele: the Chenghua stele we see now is the most famous one in the
Confucius Temple, which was set up by Zhu Jianshen, the emperor of Chenghua in
the Ming Dynasty. There are two things that have attracted the attention of your
celebrities. First, Chenghua tablet's regular script is well written,
standardized, exquisite and attractive; The second is the highest evaluation of
Confucius. Emperors of all dynasties have commented on Confucius. The highest
evaluation is emperor Chenghua. He compares Confucius' ideas and methods to
eating, dressing and spending money. One day is inseparable from them. With
Confucius' principles and methods, one can make the best use of one's talents,
materials and land. Otherwise, it will be a mess. It is said that if there is
Confucius' way, there will be a world. If there is no Confucius' way, there will
be no world. If there is anti Confucius' way, there will be no world.
Tongwenmen: take the meaning of tongwenmen. That is to say, only with
concerted efforts and unity can we do a good job; the writing should be unified,
only with unified writing can we record the experience of historical
communication, and random writing will lead to confusion. Tongwen gate is an
important barrier in front of Kuiwen Pavilion.
Kuiwen Pavilion: the wooden structure building in front of us is called
"Kuiwen Pavilion". Originally known as the library, Kuiwen Pavilion is a place
for collecting the Secretary of the emperor. It was first built in the Song
Dynasty. There are seven rooms on three floors. This magnificent building is
made entirely of wood, without riveting. Like building blocks, it has become an
"isolated example" in the history of Chinese architecture. After several
earthquakes, was not destroyed. During the reign of Kangxi, there was
a great earthquake in Qufu, "houses in the world are nine, but there is one".
However, stands upright and safe, which shows the wisdom and superb
architectural art of the ancient working people in our country.
Thirteen stele pavilions: now we enter the sixth courtyard of Confucius
Temple. There are 13 stele pavilions and 55 steles. They were established in
Tang, song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. Most of the inscriptions are written
in Chinese, Ba Si Ba and Manchu, which are records of the emperor's posthumous
title and seal, temple worship and temple renovation. In order to show himself,
the Qing emperor built the stele Pavilion in front of it, which led to the
appearance of courtyard. This kind of architecture structure is called
"intrigue" in ancient architecture. There are eight steles in the South and five
steles in the north. Eight in the South and five in the north, so it is called
the thirteen stele Pavilion. Because they were all stele pavilions approved by
the emperor, it is also called "imperial stele Pavilion".
Dachengmen: now we enter dachengmen, "dachengmen" refers to dachengmen,
which was rebuilt by fire in the Qing Dynasty. The three characters of
dachengmen were inscribed by Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty.
Master hand planted cypress: the cypress tree in dachengmen was planted by
Confucius. According to records, Confucius once planted three trees here, and
then two died. This tree withered three times and thrived three times. There is
also a saying that "when the cypress tree grows more and more, the Kong family
grows more and more.". The five characters of "the first teacher planted cypress
by hand" were written by Yang Guangxun, a talented man in Wanli period of Ming
Dynasty. Apricot altar: the "apricot altar" in front of us was built in the Song
Dynasty to commemorate Confucius' lectures. It is said that Confucius taught to
his disciples under the big apricot tree on the platform. Because there are
apricot trees around here, it is called "apricot altar". In the pavilion of
Xingtan, there are two steles. On the front of one stele is engraved the
"Xingtan Fu" written by Emperor Qianlong when he first came to Qufu, which is
regular script. On the back is the running script inscribed by Emperor Qianlong
when he came to Xingtan for the second time. Dacheng Hall: the hall standing in
front of us is the world-famous "Dacheng hall". It is one of the "three main
halls" in China. It is as famous as the "Taihe hall" in the Forbidden City in
Beijing and the "Tianfu hall" in the Dai Temple in Taishan Mountain. Its
magnificence is more than it can be. The hall is 24.8 meters high, 45.78 meters
wide and 24.8 meters deep, with carved beams and painted buildings. The golden
wall is brilliant, especially the 28 stone pillars around it. They are all world
cultural treasures. They are all carved with whole stones. The front 10 are deep
reliefs, with two dragons playing with pearls on each pillar. They are coiled
and rising, lifelike, powerful and varied. In the past, when the emperor came,
the Kong Family wrapped the column in yellow cloth. I'm afraid they'll be
ashamed if they see it. The dragon pillars on both sides and the back porch are
bas reliefs, with 72 dragons per pillar, a total of 1296. There is a statue of
Confucius in the Dacheng hall. Every year, on September 26 and 28, we hold a
grand international Confucius Culture Festival and a ceremony to commemorate the
birth of Confucius. We perform large-scale music and dance for Confucius and
"Xiao Shao music and dance" and hold a variety of cultural and tourism
activities. Welcome to our time. Two verandahs: the houses on the East and west
sides of Dacheng hall are called "two verandahs", which are places where the
later generations worship the sages and scholars. Most of the worthy Confucians
are famous figures in the later Confucian school. In the Tang Dynasty, there
were only more than 20 people. By the time of the Republic of China, there were
156 people. These people were originally portraits. In the Jin Dynasty, they
were statues. In the Chenghua period of the Ming Dynasty, they were all wooden
tablets with names on them, and they were consecrated in shrines. Now there are
stone carvings of all ages on display in the two verandas.
Bedroom Hall: turn back along the corridor of Dacheng hall, then you come
to the bedroom hall. The bedchamber is a place for offering sacrifices to
Confucius' wife. It is the third largest building of Confucius Temple.
Confucius' wife was born in Song Dynasty in the late spring and Autumn period.
Qi Guan, who had a compound surname, married Confucius at the age of 19. He was
a good wife and mother and died seven years before Confucius. He was honored as
"the lady of the supreme sage". Enjoy sacrifice as Confucius. There are 28 stone
pillars carved with Phoenix. Each pillar is carved with 72 Phoenix, the same
number as the dragon. So it's called "Long Feng Cheng Xiang"
Yuhonglou legal stickers: the 572 "yuhonglou legal stickers" displayed here
are descendants of Confucius in the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty.
Kong Jisu collected the handwriting of the famous calligraphers of the past
dynasties and copied it. These stone carvings were originally placed in the
Yuhong building of the "Twelve Fu" in Qufu. They were moved to the Confucius
Temple in 1951 and displayed in 1964. They are of great artistic value for
Temple of Miracles: the last building of Confucius Temple. It was built in
the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty and was presided over by the censor he
Chuguang. There are 120 paintings and stone carvings in the hall, which reflect
the main activities and remarks of Confucius' life. It is the first stone
carvings with complete character stories in our country.
2、 Confucius Mansion
Front hall building of Confucius' mansion: it is the place where Confucius'
76th generation grandson Kong Lingyi and his wife live. Here you can experience
the living room of the Royal Palace of the feudal dynasty. The existing Qiantang
building was rebuilt in the reign of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty, with
East and West buildings on both sides. It was built in the Qing Dynasty. Hung in
the middle of the hall are four big characters written by Kong Lingyi, which
means that the Kong family will remain prosperous and vigorous forever.
Confucius' mansion: adjacent to the Confucius Temple, it is the residence
of Confucius' eldest son and grandson. It has three roads, nine courtyards and
Confucius' mansion, also known as "Yansheng mansion". "Yan Sheng" means that
"Sheng Dao" and "Sheng Yi" can be inherited from generation to generation. Large
scale construction was carried out in the Qing Dynasty. This is the Confucian
mansion, which is a typical building in our feudal society.
Confucius' greedy Wall: there is a unicorn shaped animal on the door of
Confucius' house called "greedy". It is said that this animal is very vicious
and can swallow gold and silver. Although it is full of treasures at its feet
and around, it is still not satisfied and wants to eat the sun in the sky. It is
really "greedy". In the past, Confucius painted greedy paintings here, and you
can see them when you go out It is also a warning to our children and
grandchildren not to be corrupt and pervert the law.
Hall: it is the place where Emperor Yan read the imperial edict, met
officials, tried cases, and held ceremonies on festivals and birthdays. It
displays the first-class nobility. On the north side of the wall, those gold
lettered signs on a red background are the symbols of nobility and privilege,
commonly known as "Eighteen cloud tiles". With these brands, Yan Shenggong has
been able to travel freely in Beijing.
Second Hall: it was the place where Yan Shenggong met with officials above
grade four and was entrusted by the emperor to take the examination of rites and
music for the imperial court every year. There are seven Royal steles in the
house, including the stele of "Fu Shou" written by Emperor Daoguang of the Qing
Dynasty, the character of "Shou" written by the kind empress dowager and the
picture of pine and crane.
Third Hall: also known as the retreat hall, is the place where Yan
Shenggong deals with family disputes and punishes servants in the house. The
plaque of "six generations of Han Yi" hanging in the middle of the house was
written by Emperor Qianlong. At that time, six generations of Confucius lived in
the same hall. This plaque means that the six generations lived in harmony and
had a happy life.
Inner house gate: after the three halls, it is the inner house part of
Confucius' mansion, also known as inner house courtyard. The inner door is
separated from the outside. This gate is heavily guarded and no one is allowed
to enter without permission. The emperor of Qing Dynasty specially granted three
pairs of weapons, namely Huwei stick, Yanyi boring and Jintou jade stick. The
gatekeeper stood in front of the door with weapons, and those who disobeyed the
orders were punished severely. On the west side of the door, there is a special
water tank, Shiliu, which is exposed outside the wall. According to the
regulations of the government, the water bearer is not allowed to enter the
inner house, but only pour the water into the inner wall of the tank to flow
into the inner house.
Front upper room: it is the living room for the master of Confucius to
receive his close relatives and Jinzhi people. It is also the main place for
them to hold family banquets and weddings and funerals. The room is decorated
with gorgeous furnishings, cultural relics and antiques.
Houtanglou: the residence of kongdecheng, the seventy seventh generation of
Confucius. Kong Decheng was born in 1920. Less than two months after he was
born, he was appointed by the then president Xu Shichang as the emperor of
Xifeng. In 1935, he was awarded the title of "the most holy and venerable
official of Dacheng" by Nanjing National Government. She married Ms. sun Qifang
in 1936. Most of the time after that, he was in Chongqing and Nanjing with the
national government, and moved from Nanjing to Taiwan on the eve of the
liberation of the mainland in 1949.
Back garden of Confucius Mansion: it was built in the 16th year of Hongzhi
in Ming Dynasty. After three major repairs, it covers an area of more than 50
mu. In the Jiaqing period of the Qing Dynasty, when Kong Qingfei, the 73rd
generation grandson of Confucius, rebuilt the garden, he placed several large
iron ores in it, so it was also called "iron mountain garden". Among them, "five
cypress baohuai" is a cypress tree in the middle and a Sophora tree around, so
it is called five cypress baohuai. It's a wonder in the garden. It symbolizes
the Confucius family's family life of mutual love, mutual assistance and mutual
aid for hundreds of years.
3、 Kong Lin
Kong Lin: it is the cemetery of Confucius and his family. It is the longest
and largest family cemetery in the world. Konglin is located on the northern
Surabaya of Qufu City, covering an area of 3000 mu. There are four types of
Chinese classical architecture: Palace, garden, Mausoleum and temple. The
Confucius Temple in Confucius' mansion embodies the characteristics of palace
and Garden Temple, while the Confucius forest is a kind of mausoleum and garden.
Confucius Temple and Confucius Mansion show the profundity of Confucius thought
and the solemnity of your family. Kong Lin embodies the glory of Confucius and
his descendants after their death. Since Confucius was buried with his wife,
people planted trees for the beginning of Confucius forest. After more than two
thousand years of continuous expansion of more than 70 belts, a large area of
Kong Family cemetery Kong Lin was gradually formed.
Shinto: out of the north gate of Fucheng, there is a road leading to
Guling, so you call it Konglin Shinto. In the ancient concept, Shinto was the
channel sent by the gods when Confucius accepted the sacrifice. The whole Shinto
is paved with green stones, and the ancient cypresses are arranged on both sides
of the Shinto until the door of Konglin. They come in different shapes,
Before I came to Qufu, many of my friends may have known a lot about Qufu
and Confucius, but some of them didn't know much about them. Now, before I enter
the scenic spots, I'd like to briefly introduce Qufu and Confucius.
Qufu is located in the southwest of Shandong Province, China. There are
620000 people in Qufu, including an urban population of 100000 and an area of
890 square kilometers. The word "Qufu" first appeared in Erya. Ying Shao
explained in the Eastern Han Dynasty that there was a Fu in the city of Lu, and
Weiqu was seven or eight Li long, so it was named "Qufu". In 1012, the fifth
year of dazhongxiangfu, Emperor Zhenzong of the Song Dynasty, in order to
commemorate the birth of Xuanyuan Yellow Emperor, the ancestor of the Chinese
nation, in Qufu, he once changed his name to Xianyuan county. In 1129, Emperor
Taizong of the Jin Dynasty renamed Qufu, which is still in use today. Qufu is a
small city. However, Qufu is also an ancient city with 5000 years of
civilization and culture. In this sacred and ancient land, there are four people
left traces of the three emperors and five emperors in ancient Chinese legend.
According to historical records, Emperor Century and other historical records,
"the Yellow Emperor was born in Shouqiu", "SHAOHAO ascended the throne from the
poor sang, called Qufu as the capital, and was buried in Yunyang mountain". Now,
eight miles east of Qufu, there is still a pyramid tomb, SHAOHAO mausoleum.
There is a Chinese saying that "people go to the top, water flows to the
bottom". Can we understand that our ancestors of the Chinese nation migrated
from here, from the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River to the Central
Plains, to the Loess Plateau, while our mother's rivers, the Yellow River and
the Yangtze River, galloped down from the Loess Plateau, and finally flowed into
the sea In fact, most of the sages in Jiangbei came from Qufu. In the feudal
times of China, there were six saints granted by the emperor. They were
Confucius, Mencius, fushengyanzi, shushengzisi, zongshengzengzi and
yuanshengzhougong. The first four were born in Qufu. The last two were disciples
of Confucius and fiefdoms in Qufu. Zhougong was the king of the state of Lu for
33 generations, and Shandong has been called Lu since then. Now there are many
cultural relics in Qufu, including 4 national cultural relics, 11 provincial
relics and more than 100 municipal relics. In 1982, Qufu was announced by the
State Council as one of the first batch of 24 historical and cultural cities in
China. In 1994, Qufu's "three Confucius" was officially listed as a world
cultural heritage by the United Nations. Because of its important contribution
to Oriental culture, many people call Qufu one of the three holy cities in the
world: "Oriental Mecca". Here, you have to ponder, but also can not help
feeling, because here is deeply rooted in the Chinese nation, deeply rooted in
traditional Chinese culture.
Dear friends, in China, in the East, a land with a history of 5000 years of
civilization, you may not understand the inscriptions on bronzes, or what the
human head and animal body represent or symbolize. However, when you walk into
the life of the Chinese people and walk on the ancient land where the Chinese
nation thrives and works to create, you can feel and touch the Confucian culture
in the daily life of the Chinese people, and then you can experience the
differences between the Chinese people and other nationalities in their way of
life, customs and ideals. No matter from which angle or level you explore the
personality and character of the Chinese nation, it is not difficult to find the
gene of Confucian culture. In the long process of historical evolution,
Confucian culture has almost become the synonym of Chinese traditional culture.
The founder of Confucian culture is Confucius.
Confucius was born in 551 B.C. and died in 479 B.C. at the age of 73. When
Confucius was 3 years old, his father uncle Liang he died. When he was 16 years
old, his mother Yan Zheng died. Young Confucius became an orphan and began his
life of making a living, studying and struggling alone in a hierarchical feudal
As a young man, Confucius studied hard and asked questions frequently. In
his youth, he mastered the six arts of etiquette, music, archery, imperial,
calligraphy and mathematics, and then mastered the six classics of poetry,
calligraphy, etiquette, music, changes and spring and autumn, which laid the
foundation for the establishment of Confucian culture.
At the age of 30, Confucius set up a school to teach students, and began a
long education career. He was the first to give private lectures in China, to
face the public, and to advocate "education without discrimination". He became
the first great educator in China and the world.
When Confucius was 51 years old, he became a magistrate of Zhongdu county.
Later, he worked as a prime minister in Lu. However, not long after that, he
resigned and left the state of Lu to begin his 14 year tour of other
When Confucius returned to the state of Lu at the age of 68, he devoted
almost all his energy to teaching and literature collation until his death.
Confucius's life is a life of wandering and suffering, a life of hard work and
encouragement, a life of spring breeze and rain, a life of cultivating talents,
a life of writing books and writing stories, and a life of saving the world.
Today, although his body has gone up in smoke and ashes, his thoughts have
penetrated into the hearts of every Oriental. He has cast the personality and
character of the Chinese nation. With the development of history and social
progress, Confucius will also guide mankind to stride into the 21st century.
There are many cultural relics and tourist attractions in Qufu, most of
which are related to Confucius and Confucius culture. Now we are located in the
South Gate of the ancient city of qufuming. To the north of the gate is the
Confucius Temple, which is known as one of the three ancient buildings in China.
There are four characters "Wanren palace wall" above the gate. Ren is an ancient
unit of length, one Ren is about 8 feet. It is said that some people praised
Confucius disciple Zigong for his knowledge. After hearing that, Zigong said,
"human knowledge is like a palace wall. My knowledge is only as high as the top
of the wall. People can see everything in the wall when they see it. But
Confucius, my teacher, has several walls. If you don't find other doors, you
can't see the beauty of the temple and the variety of houses inside the wall.".
In order to express their admiration for Confucius, Hu zuanzong in Ming Dynasty
wrote "Wanren palace wall" on the city gate. In order to show his worship for
Confucius, Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty took down the stele and replaced it
with "Wanren palace wall". This is the origin of "Wanren palace wall".
Confucius Temple is a temple built by later generations to offer sacrifices
to Confucius. It was built in the second year after Confucius died. With an area
of 327.5 mu, it imitates the Imperial Palace system. It is divided into nine
courtyards and arranged symmetrically on the left and right. The whole building
complex has 466 rooms, including five halls, one Pavilion, one altar, two
verandas, two halls, 17 stele pavilions and 54 gate squares, with a length of
about 1 km from north to south. Confucius Temple is the only isolated example in
the history of architecture in the world, which is magnificent, large in area,
long in history and well preserved.
Outside the east wall of the gate of Confucius Temple, there is a tablet
saying "officials and people wait to dismount here". In the past, any official
who came here, military officials would dismount and civil officials would
dismount to show respect for Confucius.
The first stone square of Confucius Temple is called "Jin Sheng Yu Zhen
square". Mencius once had such a comment on Confucius, he said: "Confucius is
called jidacheng, jidacheng, Jinsheng and yuzhenzhi.". "Jin Sheng, Yu Zhen"
refers to the whole process of playing music, which starts with striking the
bell and ends with striking the rock. It refers to the great achievement of
Confucius' thought of gathering ancient sages and sages. On the lotus throne
above the stone square, there is a unicorn monster called "ward off evil
spirits" or "roar from the sky". This is the only ornament that can be used in
the Royal Palace of feudal society.
The first gate of Confucius Temple is called "Lingxing gate". "Lattice
star" is also known as Tiantian star. The ancients worshipped heaven first.
"Lingxingmen" was written by Qianlong. "Taihe Yuanqi" square is similar to
"Jinsheng Yuzhen" square. The inscription is written by Zeng Mian, governor of
Shandong Province in Ming Dynasty, praising Confucius thought as heaven and
earth produce all things. There is a waist gate in the East and west of the
courtyard, and it is written in the East that "demou is as big as heaven and
earth, and his theory is the best in ancient and modern times.". This gate is
called "Shengshi gate". From here, we can feel profound and profound. The word
"holy time" is taken from the sentence "Confucius, the sage of the time" in
Mencius, which means that among the sages, Confucius is the most suitable one
for the times.
When you cross the Shengshi gate, you will face the small stone bridge,
which is called Bishui bridge. There are two gates on both sides of the bridge
to the south. The east gate is called "quick view gate", which means to see
first. The west gate is called "Yanggao gate", which praises Confucius' profound
knowledge. When we enter the gate, we call it "Hongdao gate". These three words
are taken from the sentence "people can promote Taoism" in the Analects of
Confucius. Weixing Gong, in order to praise Confucius for expounding the "Tao"
of Yao, Shun, Tang and Wenwu. This gate is also the gate of Confucius Temple in
1377. Then there is "dazhongmen". Dazhongmen is the gate of Confucius Temple in
Song Dynasty. Its original name is "gonghemen". Its meaning is related to
Confucius' doctrine of the mean. Looking south from this gate, we can see the
historical evolution of Confucius Temple on the one hand, and the continuous
expansion of Confucius temple on the other. These buildings include Qing Dynasty
buildings, Ming Dynasty buildings and Song Dynasty buildings. They were built in
different times The craftsmen are different, but they all cooperate with each
other and complement each other to form a whole. Looking at the Confucius temple
architecture, we can see part of the development history of Chinese feudal
This monument was erected in 1468, the fourth year of Chenghua in Ming
Dynasty, so it is also called "Chenghua monument". It was erected by Zhu
Jianshen, Emperor Xianzong of Ming Dynasty. The monument is 6 meters high and 2
meters wide. This tablet is famous for its exquisite calligraphy, and its
inscription is written in the form of argumentation, which can be said to be the
most highly respected of Confucius. Please look at the upper right corner. It
says: "only the way of Confucius can not be absent in one day when there is a
world." it also says: "the way of Confucius is in the world, like cloth, silk,
millet and Shu, and people's daily use can not be absent.". The animal under the
monument is not a tortoise. It's called _ 屭. It's the son of the dragon. It can
bear heavy loads, so it's used to carry the monument. There's a saying that "a
dragon has nine sons, but not a dragon". In the Confucius Temple, you can see
the dragon and his nine sons. Local people often come here to touch _ 屭. They
say: "touch _ 屭's head, never worry, touch _ 屭, never get sick.".
The wooden structure in front of us is called "Kuiwen Pavilion", which used
to be the library of Confucius Temple. "Kuixing" is one of the twenty-eight
constellations, with sixteen stars, "buckled and hooked, like a painting of
words". Later, people evolved it into the head of civil servants. The feudal
emperors compared Confucius to the Kuixing star in the sky, so Confucius was
also known as "civil servants of all ages". The pavilion is 23.35 meters high,
30.1 meters wide and 17.62 meters deep, with triple cornices and four layers of
brackets. Its structure is solid and reasonable. During the reign of Emperor
Kangxi, there was a big earthquake in Qufu, where "nine houses in the world
exist, one in the world exists". However, Kuiwen Pavilion stands upright and
safe, which shows the wisdom and superb architectural art of the ancient working
people in China.
We are now entering the sixth courtyard of the Confucius Temple. In front
of you are 13 stele pavilions, 8 in the South and 5 in the north. There are 55
stone tablets of Tang, song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties in the pavilion. Most
of the inscriptions are in Chinese, Ba Si Ba and Manchu. The stone tablet in the
middle of this row, weighing about 65 tons, was collected from Xishan Mountain
in Beijing. At that time, it was a miracle to transport such a weight stone
tablet from thousands of miles away to Qufu. There is one gate in the East and
one gate in the west of the courtyard, which is the third waist gate of the
Now we enter dachengmen. Dachengmen refers to dachengmen in the world.
There are five gates in this row. The most western gate is qishengmen, which is
dedicated to Confucius' parents. Dachengmen in the middle road is supplemented
by jinshengmen and yuzhenmen. The middle road is the most central place of
Confucius Temple, and chengshengmen in the East, which was Confucius' former
As we all know, Confucius is a great thinker, educator and statesman. In
our opinion, Confucius is first of all an educator. He is the first teacher in
China. The feudal emperor named him "the most sage and the first teacher" and
"the model of all ages". It should be said that he is a teacher of all mankind
and is worthy of the name of "engineer of human soul". The "apricot altar" in
front of us is said to be the place where Confucius set up the altar to give
lectures, and the pavilion was built in the Jin Dynasty to commemorate it. The
famous scholar Dang huaiying wrote the word "apricot altar". There is an apricot
tree beside the altar, planted by later generations. In early spring, red
flowers bloom and green leaves sway. Therefore, when Emperor Qianlong came to
pay homage, he once wrote a poem praising it. The poem said: when the rice was
in full bloom again, how could it be that there were many flowers in the world,
and the civilization was prosperous all the time.
The main hall standing in front of us is the world-famous "Dacheng hall".
It is one of the "three main halls" in China. It is as famous as the "Taihe
hall" in the Forbidden City of Beijing and the "Tianfu hall" in the Dai Temple
of Mount Tai. The hall is 24.8 meters high, 45.78 meters wide and 24.8 meters
deep, with carved beams and painted buildings. The golden wall is brilliant,
especially the 28 stone pillars around it. They are all world cultural
treasures. They are all carved with whole stones. The front 10 are deep reliefs,
with two dragons playing with pearls on each pillar. They are coiled and rising,
lifelike, powerful and varied. In the past, when the emperor came, he wrapped
the pillar in yellow cloth. If they see it, they will be ashamed. There are 72
dragons in each column, a total of 1296. In the Dacheng hall, there are four
statues of Confucius on both sides. The East and West are Fusheng Yanhui,
Shusheng Kongji, and the west is Zongsheng Zengshen and Yasheng Mencius. Another
12. Every year, on September 26 and 28, we hold a grand international Confucius
Culture Festival and a ceremony to commemorate the birth of Confucius, perform
large-scale music and dance for Confucius and "Xiao Shao music and dance", and
hold a variety of cultural and tourism activities. Welcome to our time.
Shandong, one of the birthplaces of ancient Chinese culture, is a great
land with not only famous mountains and rivers, but also splendid civilization
in the long history of civilization. There are numerous places of interest and
scenic spots in Shandong.
Dear tourists, ladies and gentlemen, you have worked hard all the way.
Welcome to the Confucius Temple.
Dear tourist friends, ladies and gentlemen, welcome to Qufu, Confucius'
hometown, and thank you for choosing me as your guide. I'm Zhang, a tour guide
of __ travel agency in Qufu. You can call me Xiao Zhang or Zhang Dao. Confucius
has a famous saying: "it's a pleasure to have friends from afar." Now let me
feel happy to meet new friends and provide you with tour guide service.
Confucius Temple is a ritual temple for Confucius. Confucius is a famous
thinker and educator at the end of the spring and Autumn Period in China, and is
respected as the founder of the Confucian school. According to records,
Confucius was born on the top of the polder, like the shape of Niqiu mountain,
so because of the name Qiu, the word Zhongni.
In his life of hard exploration of social practice, Confucius deeply
understood and understood the society at that time, gradually established the
basic system of Confucianism, and became a famous political theorist, educator
and thinker at that time. The Confucianism he founded has a great influence in
the history of China and even the world. In the second year after Confucius died
(478 BC), Duke AI of Lu changed the hall where Confucius lived to "longevity
hall". There were three houses, which displayed "clothes, crowns, Qin, Che, Shu"
used by Confucius, and "because they thought they were temples, they were
worshipped when they were old", that is, they offered sacrifices on time every
year. Although Confucius was a well-known academic master at that time,
Confucianism was only a school, and Confucius was not in a high position, so the
original Confucius Temple was only the former residence of Confucius. After the
Han Dynasty, the status of Confucius and Confucianism gradually improved.
According to records, from 220 A.D. to the time before liberation, the
Confucius Temple was rebuilt and expanded for more than 70 times. After more
than 2000 years of reconstruction and expansion, the Confucius Temple in Qufu
formed a large-scale ancient architectural complex. It covers an area of about
140000 square meters, including 466 halls, pavilions, 54 gates and 17 stele
pavilions. With its large scale, the Palace Museum and Chengde Mountain Resort
are known as the three major ancient architectural complexes in China.
The overall layout of Confucius Temple is a long-term development of
Confucius' former residence, which has a history of more than 2400 years. The
architectural effect pursued by the development of Confucius Temple is achieved
through the environment created by the whole building complex to set off the
great achievements of Confucius and the profound and extensive of Confucianism
and Taoism. Therefore, the artistic expression of Confucius temple architecture
is firstly the integrity of its overall layout and architectural sequence;
secondly, the treatment of its individual buildings and the pattern of each
courtyard, and each hall, hall, building, door and pavilion fully shows their
respective important role; The third is the subtle aspects of individual
architecture, which fully reflects the unparalleled artistic achievements of
Chinese ancient architects in design and construction. In the aspect of overall
architecture, Confucius Temple adopts the ancient traditional palace style
architecture. However, it has been rebuilt and expanded for many times in
history. When it is rebuilt and expanded, it is bound to be limited by the
shape, scale and other factors of the previous Confucian temple. However, the
architectural group of the Confucian temple finally successfully utilized the
heritage of the previous generation, which not only reflects the continuation of
the historical heritage, but also maintains its overall integrity. This unique
architectural form is caused by many factors. First of all, the Confucius Temple
is an extension of the former residence of Confucius, which preserves many
historical sites related to Confucius, such as the old house well, poetry hall,
Lubi, Jinsi hall, and the apricot altar built to commemorate Confucius'
lectures; second, the Royal ancestral temple factors, such as the halberd
system, the front hall and the back bedroom system; third, the palace factors,
such as the five gate system of the emperor, the turret system of the Royal
City, the East and West Huamen, etc; The fourth is the factors of clan and
family temples, such as Qisheng temple, Chongsheng temple, family temple, etc.;
the fifth is the factors of sacrifice. In addition to Confucius, Sipei and
twelve philosophers, there are also sages, Confucians and ancestors, with a
total number of more than 200 people. In order to accommodate a large number of
worshippers, it is necessary to set up veranda, thus forming veranda courtyard.
In addition to the above factors, it also highlights the sage status of
Confucius and the sanctity of Confucius and Mencius, such as panchi, Bishui,
memorial archway and so on, and symbolizes Confucius' great academic
achievements with the book building. Confucius Temple has successfully used the
traditional combination of courtyard and environment, and achieved the purpose
of rendering Confucius' outstanding contribution in academic and education and
his lofty position in ancient society. It is a unique architectural form in
ancient Chinese architectural complex.
There are more than 1200 ancient trees in the Confucius Temple, which
reflect each other with the magnificent buildings. Especially in summer,
thousands of egrets live on the ancient trees, forming another unique landscape
of the Confucius Temple. Egrets have been designated as city birds by Qufu
Wanren palace wall
Jin Sheng Yu Zhen Fang
Jinshengyuzhen square was built in 1538, the 17th year of Jiajing reign of
Ming Dynasty. The four characters of "jinshengyuzhen" are written by Hu
zuanzong, a scholar of Ming Dynasty. On the square, there is a light carved
cloud dragon playing with pearls. On the top of each column, there is a round
carving "ward off evil spirits", commonly known as "chaotianhou". Behind the
square, there is a single hole stone bridge, on which there is a dragon, named
"Panshui bridge". Under the bridge, the upstream of panshuiyuan is connected
with gupanchi, and the downstream flows through the South Gate of Ming City
Xishuimen enters the moat. The bridge was built in the 16th year of the reign of
Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1677 AD).
The four characters of "Jin Sheng Yu Zhen" come from "Mencius · Wan Zhang
Xia", Mencius said: "Confucius is called jidacheng. He who has achieved great
success has a golden voice and a jade. The first is the sound of gold, and the
last is the sound of jade. " It means that Confucius is a master of sages and
sages. The original meaning of "Jin Sheng" refers to the sound of "Zhong", an
ancient musical instrument in China. The original meaning of "Yu Zhen" refers to
the sound of "Qing", an ancient musical instrument in China. Mencius compares
Confucius' thought to a perfect music. Here, to borrow Mencius' meaning, it
means that Confucius' thought is perfect and integrates the achievements of
ancient sages to reach the top.
Lattice star gate
Lingxing gate was built in the 13th year of Yongle (AD 1415) of Ming
Dynasty. It was originally made of wood. In the 19th year of Qianlong (AD 1754)
of Qing Dynasty, it was replaced by stone pillars and iron beams when Kong
Zhaohuan rebuilt the Confucius Temple. On the top of the four pillars are the
four generals, and on the middle beam are the fire pearls, which symbolizes that
the gate is guarded by the generals and becomes a towering gate.
Lingxing, namely Tiantian star, was first seen in the historical data of
the Han Emperor Gaozu's order to worship Lingxing. The ancients believed that
Lingxing was a star that "the LORD was honored by the scholars" and was
specially in charge of officials. In the sixth year of emperor Renzong of Song
Dynasty (A.D. 1028), a Lingxing gate was built on the outer wall of the
platform, which was like a window lattice. There is a gate in the Confucius
Temple, which means to worship Confucius as heaven. This can be seen in the
records of JINGDING Jiankang and Jinling Xinzhi of Song Dynasty. In addition,
there is a inscription in the Confucius Temple: the Lingxing gate is set up to
"dredge it to accommodate the corporal". Wherever there is a Lingxing gate, its
door leaf must be made of lattice structure, so it has the meaning of dredge.
The Confucius temple takes this meaning to attract scholars from all over the
world to study here.
In feudal society, all the officials who came to Qufu to offer sacrifices
to Confucius, regardless of their positions, had to get off the sedan chair and
dismount the military officials to show their respect for Confucius. This
monument was first erected in the second year of the reign of emperor Mingchang
of Jin Dynasty (1191 AD), and now only one is left in the East.
Taihe Yuanqi square
Taihe Yuanqi square was built in the 23rd year of Jiajing in the Ming
Dynasty (1544 A.D.), which is of stone structure. "Taihe Yuanqi" was written by
the governor of Shandong at that time.
"Taihe" refers to the combination of heaven and earth, sun and moon, and
Yin and Yang. "Yuanqi" originally means the original material that forms the
world. Later, some materialists called the five elements "Yuanqi" as "gold,
wood, water, fire and earth". Everything in the world is composed of five
elements. Here, "Yuanqi" is the combination of heaven and earth, sun and moon,
and Yin and Yang, which is the basis for the growth of all things. "Taihe Qi"
means that Confucius thought embodies the essence and the most noble aspect of
human thought. It can make human thought reach a supreme position as the
universe produces everything.
After Yuanqi square of Taihe, there was the "Zhisheng Temple" square,
formerly known as the "Xuansheng Temple" square. There was no record of its
founding date. There was a "Xuansheng Temple" square on the temple map in the
16th year of Hongzhi of Ming Dynasty (AD 1503). In 1729 ad, Xuansheng temple was
changed to Zhisheng temple. This square is white marble. "Zhi" means
"Demou heaven and earth, Daoguan ancient and modern" means that Confucius
contributed as much to mankind as heaven and earth. Confucius thought is
unprecedented, and is supreme in both ancient and modern times and in the
Holy time gate
Shengshimen, originally the main gate of Confucius Temple, was built in the
13th year of Yongle (AD 1415) of Ming Dynasty, expanded in the 12th year of
Hongzhi (AD 1499), and named "shengshimen" by Emperor Shizong of Qing Dynasty in
the 8th year of Yongzheng (AD 1730). The gate is built on a high platform, and
there are reliefs on the front and rear Royal Roads respectively. It is carved
in the Ming Dynasty. "Shengshimen" was written by Emperor Gaozong of Qing
The word "Shengshi" comes from Mencius. After comparing four ancient
Chinese sages, Mencius pointed out: "Boyi is the sage of Qing Dynasty; Yiyin is
the sage of Ren Dynasty; liuxiahui is the sage of harmony; Confucius is the sage
of time". Yi Yin helped Tang exterminate Xia Jie, assisted Wai Bing after Tang
died, and established Tang sun Tai Jia to ascend the throne after Zhong Ren
died. Because Tai Jia destroyed Tang FA, he was banished by Yi Yin. Three years
later, Tai Jia repented and Yi Yin took him back. Mencius called Yi Yin the
sage; Liu Xiahui was a senior official of the state of Lu in the spring and
Autumn period. He had been demoted three times and remained in office. When
asked why he didn't leave, he replied, "how can we go straight and serve people?
Why should we go to our parents' country if we do wrong?" later, when Qi
attacked Lu, he sent people to Qi to persuade him to withdraw. Without a single
soldier, he withdrew from Qi's army, so Mencius said that he was the Holy One.
By comparison, Mencius believes that Confucius is the sage of the time, the sage
of the whole time, is the most suitable sage of the times, no matter in any
period, any dynasty, Confucius thought should become orthodox thought.
When you enter the Shengshi gate, it suddenly opens. In the large square
courtyard, there are towering ancient trees, fragrant grass, symmetrical East
and West, each with a waist gate. The three arch bridges on the opposite side
cover the Bishui, and half cover the Hongdao gate. In addition, the stone bonsai
is decorated on it. It makes people relaxed and happy, and they are all moved.
They suddenly feel that they have entered the realm of "God". Those who worship
the saints will look up to the top, and those who watch will see it first.
Connected with this situation, the east side of the waist gate is called "quick
view", and the west side of the waist gate is called "Yang Gao". "Kuai Kan"
means seeing first, while "Yanggao" comes from the Analects of Confucius ·
Zihan. It means that Confucius' way is high and unfathomable. Looking up, the
higher you look, the higher you study Confucius' thoughts and theories. Once you
enter the door, you will feel that there is no end to what you learn. These two
gates were built in the 12th year of Hongzhi in Ming Dynasty (1499 AD). In the
past, only the emperor could go through the main gate for sacrifice, and most
people could only enter the temple through the Yanggao gate.
In front of a water across, three bridges longitudinal span, ring water has
carved stone column, because the water "around such as Bi" named "Bi water".
There is Jinshui in front of Tiananmen Gate in Beijing, where Bishui means
Confucius Temple is the same as the Imperial Palace, so the third bridge is
named Bishui bridge. It was first built in the 13th year of Yongle (AD 1415) of
Ming Dynasty. In the 12th year of Hongzhi of Ming Dynasty (AD 1499), stone
railings were added. The river body was built with a river bottom. The original
river was built with small walls. In the 16th year of Kangxi of Qing Dynasty (AD
1677), the small walls were changed into stone railings.
Hongdaomen was built in 1377, the 10th year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty. It
was the main gate of Confucius Temple at that time. When the Confucius Temple
was rebuilt in Hongzhi period of Ming Dynasty, it was rebuilt into five rooms.
In the eighth year of Yongzheng (1730 A.D.), Emperor Yongzheng designated it as
"Hongdao gate". Later, Emperor Qianlong inscribed the word "Hongdao" and erected
a plaque on the gate.
There are two stone steles under hongdaomen. The East stele is the "history
of Qufu county" carved in Yuan Dynasty, which records the history of Qufu before
Yuan Dynasty and has high historical value. Xibei is the epitaph of Mr. Chushi
Wang in Yuan Dynasty, which is of great calligraphy value. The two steles were
originally erected in Jiuxian village in the east of Qufu City and moved to the
Confucius Temple in 1964.
Da Zhong men
Dazhongmen is the main gate of Confucius Temple in Song Dynasty. It was
built in Song Dynasty and rebuilt in 1499. The three character plaque of
"dazhongmen" was written by Emperor Gaozong of Qing Dynasty.
There are three green tile corner buildings on both sides of the Dazhong
gate. The two corner buildings are built on the square high platform in the
shape of a curved ruler. The rectangular outline formed by the two corner
buildings and the East and west corner buildings behind the Confucius Temple is
the outline of the Confucius Temple in the yuan Dynasty. The main buildings in
the Confucius Temple are within this outline. The turret was built in 1331 A.D.
in the second year of the Yuan Dynasty. The corner tower of Confucius Temple is
modeled on the corner tower of Imperial City, which means that Confucius Temple
is as majestic as imperial palace.
Tongwenmen was built in Song Dynasty. It was originally three rooms, and
expanded to five rooms in Chenghua period of Ming Dynasty. It was called
"shentongmen" in the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, and changed to
tongwenmen in the seventh year of Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1729 AD). This
door is a single door, no wall on the left and right. In the past, in
traditional Chinese palace style architecture, small buildings were often used
as barriers before the main building to show solemnity. Tongwen gate acted as a
barrier for Kuiwen Pavilion. "Tongwenmen" was written by Emperor Gaozong of Qing
, formerly known as the library, was built in the Song Dynasty with
five double eaves. In the sixth year of jinmingchang (AD 1195), it was changed
into three eaves and was named . In the 17th year of Hongzhi in Ming
Dynasty (1504 AD), it was changed into seven rooms. Emperor Qianlong of Gaozong
of Qing Dynasty inscribed a plaque on the pavilion.
Kuiwen Pavilion is 30.1 meters wide from east to west, 17.62 meters deep
from north to south, and 23.35 meters high. It has triple cornices, four layers
of brackets, and eight octagonal stone columns under the eaves. The internal
structure is a laminated wooden frame, with two layers of Pavilion and a dark
layer in the middle.
Kui, the name of the star. One of the 28 sleepers. It is said that it is
the head of the white tiger in the west, with a total of 16 stars, "buckled and
hooked, like a painting of words". In the book of filial piety, it is said that
"the article of Kui master", and later generations further described Kui star as
"the head of civil servants". Therefore, in order to praise Confucius as a civil
servant, Jin Zhangzong named the original library Kuiwen Pavilion.
Kuiwen pavilion has experienced hundreds of years of ups and downs and
hundreds of earthquakes since it was expanded in 1504. In the West Pavilion,
there is a tablet recording a major earthquake in the Kangxi period of Qing
Dynasty, "nine houses in the world, one in the world". That is to say, 90% of
the houses collapsed and Kuiwen pavilion was safe and sound. By the early 1980s,
Kuiwen Pavilion had been in disrepair for many years. Some of the wood was
rotten and the top of the pavilion was twisted. Under the leadership of the
State Administration of cultural relics, experts on ancient buildings were
organized to work out a restoration plan. More than 1.2 million yuan was
allocated to renovate Kuiwen Pavilion one year ahead of the original schedule.
The renovated Kuiwen pavilion has completely maintained its original
specifications and style.
There are two stone tablets in the East and west of corridor. Fu in the East is written by Li Dongyang, a famous poet in Ming
Dynasty, and Qiao Zong, a famous calligrapher. In the west is reset
books record, which records that in 1511, Liu Liu and Liu Qi led the peasant
uprising army to capture Qufu and occupy the Confucius Temple. After they burned
k's books, the emperor ordered the Ministry of rites to issue imperial
books. In the late Qing Dynasty, the collection of books in Kuiwen pavilion was
moved to Confucius' residence for preservation.
Kuiwen Pavilion is now on display with the pictures of Confucius' holy
Hello! Entrusted by the tourism and reception departments, I would like to
extend a warm welcome to all the guests visiting Qufu, a famous city. I am very
glad to be accompanied by a tour guide. This is a good opportunity for us to
enjoy and study together. Please leave your valuable comments after reading.
First of all, I would like to briefly introduce the history and cultural
relics of Qufu.
Qufu, a famous historical and cultural city, is the hometown of Confucius,
a great thinker, educator, politician, literature arranger and sage of the world
in ancient China, the hometown of Mencius, the birthplace of Xuanyuan Yellow
Emperor, the ancestor of the Chinese nation, the capital of Yan Emperor, the
hometown of Shang and Yin, and the capital of Lu. Four of the three emperors and
five emperors lived and worked here for more than 5000 years. There are abundant
treasures underground and numerous cultural relics on the ground. At present,
there are 112 cultural relics, including UN protected units, 3 World Cultural
Heritage sites, 4 national protected sites, 12 provincial protected sites, and
others protected at prefecture level.
The most important ones are "three Confucius, two temples and one
mausoleum", "three mountains, two forests and one temple". Confucius Temple,
Confucius Mansion and Confucius forest are commonly known as "three Confucius".
There are temples dedicated to Zhou Gong, the sage of the Yuan Dynasty in China,
and temples dedicated to Fusheng Yanhui, the first disciple of Confucius, which
are commonly known as "two temples"; Yiling is SHAOHAO mausoleum in Shouqiu, the
birthplace of Yellow Emperor; Sanshan; and Jiuxian mountain (also known as
Jiushan), the birthplace of Confucius. The second forest is: mengmulin, the best
mother to educate children in the world, lianggonglin, the burial place of
Confucius' parents; "Yisi" is the place where Li Bai and Du Fu wrote poems,
answered correctly and parted. The famous scholar Kong Shangren lived in
seclusion in Shimen temple, the national garden.
Now let's look at the Confucius Temple.
Confucius Temple, also known as Zhisheng temple, is a place for offering
sacrifices to Confucius and his wife Qi Guan and 72 sages. Together with the
Forbidden City in Beijing and Chengde summer resort in Hebei, Confucius Temple
is known as China's three major ancient architectural complexes. Experts said
four words to Confucius Temple: the oldest, the most grand, the most complete
preservation, and the most prominent Oriental architectural features. Two
problems can be seen from the Confucius Temple: one is the great contribution of
Confucius to China and even the oriental culture; the other is that China has
craftsmen in history.
Confucius Temple was built in 478 BC, the year after Confucius died. In the
former residence of Confucius, three temples were built to display Confucius'
clothes, cars, books and so on. The Confucius Temple was expanded by emperors of
all dynasties, including 15 major repairs, 31 medium repairs and hundreds of
minor repairs, reaching the present scale. The Confucius Temple imitates the
imperial palace. It is divided into three layout, nine courtyards. It has 466
houses and 54 gates and pavilions. It runs through a central axis from east to
west. There are nearly one thousand steles, covering an area of 327.5 mu, which
is two Li and 150 meters long. The Confucius Temple we see now is the scale of
the Hongzhi period of the Ming Dynasty. After liberation, the state allocated
funds for maintenance and protection for many times. The first batch of national
key cultural relic protection units announced by China were listed as world
cultural heritage in December 1994, and became cultural relic units protected by
the United Nations. Confucius Temple has been built for a long time, has a large
scale, and is completely preserved, which is rare in the world.
Shinto. "Wanren palace wall" before the ancient cypress vigorous this
section of the road is "Shinto". In front of important temples, there is a
special way of respecting and understanding, which is called "Shinto".
Wanren palace wall. This gate is the South Gate of Ming City in Qufu, and
it is also the first gate of Confucius Temple. It is hung with the four
characters of "Wanren palace wall", which was written by Emperor Qianlong of
Qing Dynasty. It comes from Zi Gong, the proud disciple of Confucius. At the
meeting of the state of Lu, it was proposed that Zigong's knowledge was broad
and profound, which could be compared with Confucius. Zigong stood up
immediately and said, I dare not compare with my teacher Confucius. Human
knowledge is like a wall. My wall is only one Ren high, and my teacher's wall is
several Ren high. That is to say, my knowledge is equal to a shoulder high,
clear at a glance, nothing profound; Confucius' knowledge is several times as
much as mine, after detailed research, comprehensive discussion, we can
understand all of him, after entering the door, we can see the beauty of the
temple, you can't see it outside the door. In order to describe Confucius'
profound knowledge, later generations changed from the master's wall to "hundred
Ren" and "thousand Ren" to the emperor of Ming Dynasty who granted Confucius the
title of "civil servant in the world, imperial teacher of all dynasties", and
praised Confucius' knowledge as "ten thousand Ren". Looking up, we can't see the
top. It also said that the wall was very solid. These four words were originally
written by the imperial envoy of Ming Dynasty. In order to show that he attached
great importance to Confucius, Qianlong replaced his imperial pen with his
personal letter "Wanren palace wall".
Jin Sheng Yu Zhen Fang. This workshop was built in Ming Dynasty to express
Confucius' exquisite and perfect knowledge, just like the whole process of
playing music, which is complete from beginning to end. Ancient music begins
with the ringing of a bell, which starts with the sound of "the beginning of
order" and ends with the striking of a chime. The sound of "jade vibration" is
the sound of the falling of the chime, which is called "the end of order".
Praising Confucius' knowledge is a great achievement of the sages and sages, so
it is called "the sound of gold and the sound of jade vibration". The sound of
"golden sound" is the sound of the bell, which starts with the sound of "jade
vibration" and ends with the sound of the chime. This is also the source of the
idiom "start and finish". "Jin Sheng Yu Zhen" was written by Hu zuanzong, a
great calligrapher in Ming Dynasty.
"Two cypresses bear one hole". There is an ancient cypress in the East and
west of the single hole stone arch bridge passing yuzhenfang, so it is called
"two cypresses bear one hole". This bridge is called "Panshui bridge", which is
connected with the water in the pan pool beside the palace, so it is called "pan
water". In the past, when I read the book of Confucius and Mencius, I was
admitted to higher education, which is called "entering hope". Officials hope to
be promoted, do business, hope to get rich, and live a prosperous life.
Dismount monument. Outside the temple wall, there are two stone tablets,
the Xiama tablet and Xiajiao tablet, which were set up in 1191 ad. The stele in
the West had been destroyed, and the stele in the East said, "officials and
people wait to get off here.". In the past, civil and military officials and
common people passed by, dismounted and walked on foot to show respect for
Confucius and Confucius Temple.
Lattice star gate. It was built in the Ming Dynasty and rebuilt in 1754 ad.
it was made of wood instead of iron and stone. "Lingxingmen" was written by
Emperor Qianlong. It is said that there are twenty-eight constellations in the
sky. Among them, there is a star in charge of culture called "Lingxing", also
known as "Wenqu star" and "tianzhenxing". It connects Confucius with the star in
charge of culture in the sky and says that he is the highest in culture. For
example, in the past, when worshiping heaven, we should first worship "Wenqu
star". There is a saying that respecting Confucius is like respecting
Taihe Yuanqi square. This workshop was built in 1544 A.D. in the Ming
Dynasty. It highly praises Confucius's idea that "the space universe can nurture
all things.". "The harmony of heaven and earth, the harmony of the four sides,
the harmony of yin and Yang" is the most basic thing, the harmony of the
universe and the vitality of the human world. "Taihe Yuanqi" is written by Zeng
Mian, governor of Shandong Province.
The most holy temple. The "Zhisheng Temple Square" built in the Ming
Dynasty is made of white marble, decorated with flame jewels.
The world of moral Mou, the road crown ancient and modern. The East and
west of the Taoist temple are lined with a very strange memorial archway.
Surrounded by wooden corner edges, there are a thousand heads and ten thousand
continuations. There are eight monsters under it, which are called "Heaven
dragon and God lion". It is said that it is dignified and inspired, which can
drive away evil and uphold justice. In the eastern memorial archway, it was
written: "demou heaven and earth", saying that the benefits of Confucius' ideas
to human beings are as high as heaven and earth, and the merits and virtues can
be compared with heaven and earth. The memorial archway in the West reads
"Daoguan ancient and modern", praising Confucius' thoughts and methods, which
are the highest in the world.
Holy time gate. The three gates are parallel, the four platforms are the
same as above, and the central Panlong. The name of this gate comes from
Mencius. For the four ancient sages, Boyi, Yiyin, liuxiahui and Confucius,
Mencius summed up the Four Saints' holy deeds into four sentences: Boyi is the
sage of the Qing Dynasty, Yiyin is the sage of the appointed, liuxiahui is the
sage of the sum, and Confucius is the sage of the time. "Shengshi" highly
praises Confucius' thought, advocates enduring, and is a sage suitable for the
times. When the emperor came to Qufu to court Confucius, he had to kneel down
three times and knock nine times, and walk through the gate of holy time. When
Yan Shenggong was born, he opened the gate of holy time. All go fast, the gate
Let's have a quick look at the gate. That is to say, Confucius' knowledge
of "Five Classics and four books" means that those who learn first have culture
first, and those who learn first have knowledge first. They compete to learn,
and it is a pleasure to see first and read first.
Look up at the door. It was named after Yan Hui's praise of Confucius. Yan
Hui said that the teacher's way is to raise the top and drill the bottom. Praise
Confucius for his lack of knowledge, which is called "Mi Gao". It is difficult
to understand classical Chinese, which is called "Mi Jian". Gao is not
unattainable, but can be learned through hard work. Yan Hui said, "the master
followed the rules and was good at attracting people. He learned from me in
writing and said that I was polite." My teacher is good at persuasion, teaching
me culture and courtesy.
Han stone man. In the pavilion of yanggaomenli, there are two Han stone
people with high historical value. One is the "Pavilion leader" (a local
official of Han Dynasty), and the other is the pawn of the palace gate. They are
all guards in front of the tomb of the king of Lu. The stone man is valued by
the ancient scholars of epigraphy, which is of great value to the study of Han
Dynasty clothing and writing.
Jinshui bridge, this bridge, with the same name as the bridge in front of
the Forbidden City, is also called Jinshui bridge, also known as Bishui bridge,
with three holes arranged in a row and green water rippling.
Hongdaomen. Crossing jinshuiqiao is the "hongdaomen" appointed by the
emperor of Ming Dynasty, which means "people can promote Taoism, not Taoism" in
the Analects of Confucius. Confucius is an ordinary literati, why become a
saint? Praise Confucius summed up the experience of sages, especially carry
forward the Yao, Shun, Yu Tang, civil and military Zhou Gong's way. "To say that
people can command and create everything is to praise people's subjective
initiative." There are two stone tablets under the Hongdao gate. The four edged
stone tablet in the East is the "history of Qufu", which records the history of
Qufu's evolution. It was established in the Yuan Dynasty and has high historical
value. In the west is the "epitaph of Mr. Chushi", which has high calligraphy
Big middle gate. Dazhongmen is the gate of Confucius Temple in Song
Dynasty. It is called "Zhonghe gate", which means that problems can be solved
easily with Confucius' thoughts. In the Ming Dynasty, the temple was renamed as
"the great gate of the middle", praising Confucius' knowledge as a collection of
human knowledge. In the middle, it means "the right way of the world in the
middle, the theorem of the world in the middle". Those who leave the middle are
not the right way, but the evil way. That is to say, no left, no right, fair and
just, forward is the mean. There are two turrets at the East and West ends of
Dazhong gate, which are used to guard the Confucius Temple.
Tongwenmen, four famous brands, Confucian temple. There are four monuments
in the middle gate. The tablet of Hongzhi in the west of the Ming Dynasty talks
about the ethics of the cardinal principles. On the right side of the Hongzhi
monument is the "Confucian temple map" drawn by Li Dongyang, a talented man of
the Ming Dynasty in Changsha, Hunan Province, which is of high value.
Chenghua stele was erected by Zhu Jianshen, the emperor of Chenghua in Ming
Dynasty. There are two situations that have attracted the attention of
celebrities of all ages. First, Chenghua tablet's regular script is well
written, standardized, exquisite and attractive; The second is the highest
evaluation of Confucius. Emperors of all dynasties have commented on Confucius.
The highest evaluation is emperor Chenghua. He compares Confucius' ideas and
methods to eating, dressing and spending money. One day is inseparable from
them. With Confucius' principles and methods, one can make the best use of one's
talents, materials and land. Otherwise, it will be a mess. It is said that if
there is Confucius' way, there will be a world. If there is no Confucius' way,
there will be no world. If there is anti Confucius' way, there will be no world.
Such as the inscription said: "I only have Confucius's way, the world can not be
without Yan, there is Confucius's way, then the principle of justice and ethics,
everything has its own place..., Confucius's way in the world, such as cloth Su
Shu, people's livelihood daily use can not be short of,... Born Confucius
vertical for the holy, life's safety, benevolence and righteousness in the
right, the rise of the teacher's way, from travel 3000, to the holy is the
Tongwenmen. The meaning of the word "human heart" is the same as that of
the text. That is to say, only with concerted efforts and unity can we do a good
job; the writing should be unified, only with unified writing can we record the
experience of historical communication, and random writing will lead to
confusion. Tongwen gate is an important barrier in front of Kuiwen Pavilion.
Kuiwen Pavilion, originally a library, is a place for collecting books
granted by the emperor. It was built in the second year of emperor Tianxi of
Song Dynasty (A.D. 1018), and was changed into "kui" when Jin Zhangzong
rebuilt it. This unique and majestic building is entirely of wood structure,
which is an isolated example in the construction of China building. After
several earthquakes, kui was not destroyed. In the earthquake of Kangxi 5
years in Qing Dynasty, "nine out of ten houses fell, one out of ten remained,
and kui remained motionless.". Li Dongyang, the Minister of the Ministry of
official in Ming Dynasty, wrote "kui Fu", praising the architectural
research value of kui. It's the stele at the east end of the corridor.
In front of the pavilion, the eastern and Western courtyards are called
"zhaisu", which is a place for worshippers to fast and bathe. Dongyuan is the
residence of Yan Shenggong, where Kangxi and Qianlong spent their time to wash.
The West courtyard is the shelter of the sacrificial staff. Kong zhaoxun, the
seventy-one generation grandson of Confucius, inlaid more than 130 steles in the
temple for worshiping Confucius in the song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties on
the wall of the courtyard, so xizhaisu is also known as the stele courtyard.
Thirteen stele pavilions. This is the sixth courtyard of the Confucius
Temple. There are 55 steles in the pavilion, which were erected in Tang, song,
Jin, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. The contents of the steles are the emperors,
Imperial Envoys' worship of Confucius, the posthumous title and evaluation of
Confucius. The records of the previous construction of the Confucius Temple are
written in Han, Manchu, Mongolian and basiba languages. Eight in the South and
five in the north, so it is called thirteen stele pavilions. Because they are
all steles approved by the emperor, they are also called imperial stele
pavilions. The third and sixth pavilions in the front row from the East were
built in the Jin Dynasty and are rare buildings in China. All the steles are
called "imperial steles". "Mian" is the mascot. It is said that the Dragon King
has nine sons, and it is the eighth son. It loves "Wen" and is good at carrying
heavy loads. The stone tablet has heavy characters, which is suitable for its
characteristics. The image should be the dragon head, turtle body, Eagle leg and
From the east to the north, the third Pavilion is a monument erected by
Emperor Kangxi. Beijing Xishan stone by the Grand Canal, economic South and
transported here. Experts calculate that the monument weighs 130000 Jin. It was
splashed with water and frozen along the way from Jining. Sometimes it came over
on the ice and only went to the land of lying cattle one day. Qufu originally
had good stones, which should be transported from Beijing to show the emperor's
attention to Confucius. There are two steles in the southeast and southwest of
the courtyard, all of which are the records of the princes and ministers who
built temples and worshipped Confucius. The calligraphy value is very high.
There is one gate in the East and one in the west, Yucui gate in the East
and Guande gate in the West. Commonly known as Donghuamen, xihuamen.
From here, the Confucius Temple is divided into three routes. The five
gates are Dacheng gate, Jinsheng gate on the left, Yuzhen gate on the right,
Qisheng gate on the West and Chengsheng gate on the East. The architectural
structure of dachengmen is "intertwined, intriguing". The center is inserted as
"hook center", and the top of the left and right four corners is "bucket angle".
The three characters of dachengmen were written by Emperor Yongzheng. Praise
Confucius is a collection of sages and sages, reached the supreme realm.
The first teacher planted juniper by hand. The tall and vigorous cypress
tree on the left of Dacheng gate was planted by Confucius. According to records:
Confucius cut three cypress trees here. In the second year of Jin Zhenyou (A.D.
1214), they were destroyed by fire. The trees withered and sprouted new
branches. There were "three withers and three glories", and there was a saying
that "cypress trees were flourishing every day.". During the Wanli period of the
Ming Dynasty, Yang Guangxun, a gifted scholar, wrote five characters: "the first
teacher planted cypress by hand.".
Two long corridors. On both sides of the two equal rows of houses, a total
of 80, known as the "East and West veranda", is dedicated to 72 sages. Confucius
is known as a disciple of three thousand, 72 people who are proficient in six
arts, literature and martial arts, worshipped in the East and West. All the
emperors of the past dynasties were entitled to the sages. Such as Dong
Zhongshu, Han Yu, Wang Mingyang, Zhuge Liang, Kou Zhun, Yue Fei and so on. By
the time of the Republic of China, there were 156. The last sage is Mr. Liang
Qichao. The original statues and tablets were changed to wooden tablets.
Dongxiwu now displays a collection of Zhonggui stone carvings before the Song
Dynasty. The most precious national treasures of Zhou gongxunzi and bat
practicing medicine are 22 stone inscriptions of Han and Wei dynasties. The
"ritual stele", "Yiying stele", "Shichen stele", "Zhang Menglong stele" and "Mi
Fu stele" with extremely high calligraphy value are rare treasures. There are
more than 100 pieces of "Han Dynasty stone carvings" on display in Xiwu. They
are all well-known art treasures and precious materials for the study of Han,
Wei and other historical and social life. There are 584 stone inscriptions on
display at the north end of the East veranda, which are the yuhonglou sutras
written by Kong Jisu, the 69 generation grandson of Confucius.
Apricot altar. It was built in memory of Confucius' lecture. Confucius was
teaching to his disciples on the platform under the big apricot tree. In 1018
A.D. of Song Dynasty, Confucius had 45 generations